Annual Report 2015

The Earth Observatory of Singapore conducts fundamental research on earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and climate change in and around Southeast Asia, toward safer and more sustainable societies.

Letter from the Director

In this report on our seventh year of activity, you will see a spectrum of the Earth Observatory’s work that represents well the focus and passion we have as both scientists and as global citizens for understanding and sharing the geohazard challenges, and opportunities facing Southeast Asia.

This year’s report focuses on Sumatra, home to earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic hazards and a major source of atmospheric degradation. Sumatra has the attention and investment of Observatory scientists across all of our research groups. Several professors and their colleagues have been focusing on earthquake and tsunami hazards along its western coast. Mikinori Kuwati and his colleagues are monitoring and analyzing atmospheric pollution caused by burning on its eastern lands. Caroline Bouvet and her team are investigating the past behavior of the volcanoes that erupt along its mountainous backbone, to understand better the potential for future eruptions and the hazards they pose to the southeast Asian region.

Understanding the impacts of geohazard events on communities and how best to support local education and planning is also a part of our Sumatran focus. Our societal hazards and community engagement groups study and support local Sumatran communities through academic research, engagement programs and creative products.

The Earth Observatory is currently engaged in more than twenty research projects in Sumatra. Here we offer a glimpse of these and the insights they are providing.

Prof. Kerry Sieh,
Director

Research

Extending our scientific research in Sumatra and beyond.

Climate Research in Sumatra

In the face of a changing climate, Sumatra is particularly at risk since a large number of its population live in low-lying coastal areas. Human activities such as slash-and-burn farming may exacerbate the problem by adding to global warming and by sinking land closer to sea level. Climate researchers at the Observatory are studying how these actions are changing Sumatra and Southeast Asia.

Coral microatolls record the history of tectonic processes, supplementing information provided by GPS networks.

With sea levels rising, sinking land is a critical problem that needs to be addressed. Subsidence, or sinking ground, can cause flooding and land loss. Many activities cause subsidence—groundwater wells, new construction, seismic activity, and deforestation—but how they are affecting the land is unknown. Emma Hill and her team are using geodetic data from satellites, GPS stations, and tide-gauge data to study subsidence rates. By understanding the processes that contribute to subsidence, we may help Sumatran residents avoid serious land loss and flooding.

“Many activities cause subsidence—groundwater wells, new construction, seismic activity, and deforestation—but how they are affecting the land is unknown.”

Another important international issue that Southeast Asia faces is the haze from Sumatra that has been plaguing the region for decades. As peatlands in Sumatra are burned for agricultural development, they release massive amounts of carbon and harmful haze into the atmosphere. But we can’t evaluate how the haze affects the environment until we have a better scientific understanding of it. In the first study of its kind, Mikinori Kuwata’s research group will be monitoring haze at its source in Sumatra. The knowledge gained will help climate scientists accurately model the haze and quantify its environmental impact.

Hazards from Sumatran Volcanoes

There are 31 active and potentially active volcanoes in Sumatra. This Indonesian island is home to some of the largest eruptions in the world. These volcanoes are located near populous cities like Medan, Singapore, and Kuala Lumpur, which mean that a major eruption could potentially affect these cities. Assessing and mitigating hazards from these volcanoes are the foremost concerns of the EOS volcanologists.

Volcanic eruptions are difficult to predict accurately. However, with advances in monitoring systems and methods, knowledge on volcanic processes and historical eruptions improve forecasts. Therefore, casualties resulting from volcanic activity have dramatically declined in the past few decades. But there are dormant volcanoes that may potentially reawaken, such as Sinabung, which had not erupted in more than 400 years until August 2010. Understanding the volcanic behaviour from its eruptive histories and present activities through monitoring data are key to better anticipate future eruptions. In Sumatra there are more than 15 dormant volcanoes, with only a few that have been studied extensively and equipped with sufficient monitoring instruments. In view of this, scientists from the volcano group, in collaboration with the Geological Agency of Indonesia, are motivated to perform volcanic hazard studies in Sumatra from many different angles.

Marapi, a complex stratovolcano located in Bukittingi, west Sumatra, is the island’s most active volcano.

Though Sumatra hasn’t had many devastating eruptions in recent years, the shape of many of these volcanoes suggest that they have a rich eruptive history. Of these volcanoes, which ones could have violent eruptions and which ones will erupt sooner rather than later? Caroline Bouvet’s volcano petrology group is studying the shape and chemistry of Sumatran volcanoes and aims to reconstruct their eruptive histories. Knowing a volcano’s past is crucial to improve forecasting its future eruptions, to better anticipate its future hazards and to save lives.

“Knowing a volcano’s past is crucial to improve forecasting its future eruptions, to better anticipate its future hazards and to save lives.”

Satellites are often used to help detect eruption activities but several drawbacks including measurement repeatability and cloud coverage over Southeast Asia impedes detection capability. Infrasound sensors, however, can locate the imperceptible atmospheric sounds that volcanic eruptions generate over thousands of kilometres away. Benoit Taisne and his team have built an infrasonic array in Singapore to trace and classify infrasound signals, which can help early detection of volcanic explosions in Sumatra and beyond.


The Sumatran Fault

In addition to the volcanically active Sunda Arc off its west coast, Sumatra has a large fault, called the Sumatran Fault, which spans the entire length of the island. This fault is similar to the San Andreas Fault in the United States, but it’s much less studied.

The Sumatran Fault has caused at least six earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 during the past century. Due to its proximity to populous cities such as Banda Aceh, Bukittinggi, and Padang, it poses a seismic threat to large urban populations. By learning more about the Sumatran Fault’s past and present movement, Observatory researchers will better understand its behavior and seismic hazard. The research will generate more precise estimates of recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and help forecast the expected magnitudes of future earthquakes.

“The Sumatran Fault has caused at least six earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 during the past century.”

Rio Sahputra, Research Assistant at the SuMO Earthquake Geodesy Lab at Bengkulu University, manages the day-to-day logistics of the network.

The Sumatran Fault Monitoring Project measures the movement that occurs across this fault. Using data from the Sumatra Monitoring (SuMo) network of nearly 100 Global Positioning System sites that straddle the fault, Emma Hill and her team are determining slip rates—how fast two sides of the fault are sliding in relation to each other—for different segments of the Sumatran Fault Zone. This information helps estimate the seismic hazard of the Sumatran Fault, and also provides important constraints on how it accumulates and releases seismic energy.

Kerry Sieh’s group is also studying the Sumatran Fault. Using field mapping of offset features and geological dating techniques, they are able to estimate the average slip rate over tens of thousands of years for several fault segments. Last year, their work in the little-known region of southern Sumatra provided additional insight for a new and more accurate model of the Sumatran Fault. These geological fault slip rates will provide an important basis of comparison for the SuMo geodetic slip rate measurements, which reveal the fault slip rate over only the last several years.


The Sunda Megathrust

The region along Sumatra’s southern coast hosts some of the largest earthquakes in the world. The collision of the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate has produced some of the deadliest earthquakes on record. Earth Observatory researchers are in the field unlocking the secret behind these tectonic events.

“Since the faults that generate these submarine earthquakes are located offshore, different tools are required to study them.”

The Earth Observatory of Singapore, in partnership with LIPI, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, maintains the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAR), a 60-station continuous Global Positioning System network that monitors tectonic activity processes along the Sumatra subduction zone. The network has been running for more than a decade, generating a trove of data that has provided the Observatory and the region valuable insights into moderate to large earthquakes.

Since the faults that generate these submarine earthquakes are located offshore, different tools are required to study them. In collaboration with Emma Hill, Sylvain Barbot has begun expanding the GPS network with seafaring wave gliders that monitor seafloor movement. Barbot has tested the wave gliders in the NTU pool and plans to deploy them in 2016. In addition, Kerry Sieh and his team recently wrapped up a multi-year research project using corals to measure land-level change, which illuminates past earthquake cycles along the Sumatran portion of the Sunda megathrust.

Emma Hill and Sylvain Barbot, right, and their team prepare to deploy the Wave Glider into Singapore waters.

A Wave Glider float contains scientific instruments and solar panels to power the instruments.


The position of the Wave Glider is measured using GPS, while the positions of the seafloor instruments are measured using the travel time of acoustic waves from a source on the bottom of the Wave Gliders.

Also venturing into the high seas, Paul Tapponnier and Visiting Professor Satish Singh completed a research cruise along the Mentawai Gap, a section of the subduction zone that hasn’t experienced a major earthquake in the past 200 years. Scientists expect that built-up tension in this patch will soon cause a giant earthquake that will rival the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. This section of the subduction zone is the focus of many of the Observatory’s scientists’ research. The team, led by Singh and Tapponnier, acquired 950 kilometres of high-resolution seismic reflection data and more than 7,500 kilometres of bathymetric data in the region. Next year, they’ll be analysing the data and publishing the results. Meanwhile, Shengji Wei and Sylvain Barbot are also studying the Mentawai Gap with seismic and GPS monitoring respectively. All these projects will update hazard models and help protect lives across Sumatra and Southeast Asia.

Further southwest of the Mentawai Gap lies the Wharton Basin. This is where a magnitude-8.6 earthquake occurred in 2012. Known as the Great Earthquake of 2012, this was the largest earthquake of its kind ever recorded. The Wharton Basin quake has long baffled scientists because its epicentre seemed far away from the boundary between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates and was deep in the oceanic mantle. To better understand the rupture pattern and faults involved in this great earthquake, Singh and Tapponnier’s group acquired bathymetry and seismic data. Their team will be embarking on the second of three expeditions to investigate the great 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake next year.

Another project that Sylvain Barbot is working on also focuses on the Wharton Basin. Like Tapponnier and Singh, Barbot used data from the 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake to re-evaluate the amount of water in the lithosphere and to update current earthquake models.

The refined earthquake catalog in the Mentawai seismic gap reveals the complexity of fault geometry around the plate boundary. 

Tsunami Hazards in Sumatra

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated coastal regions in Asia, killing an estimated 230,000 people and displacing almost two million people from their homes. The city of Banda Aceh in Sumatra’s Aceh province was the worst hit, as several villages along the Acehnese coast were completely destroyed.

Kerry Sieh and his team are delving into the past to find out how the predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami have affected the historically important coastal trading port in 14th century Aceh. The researchers examined the evolution of settlements, coastal, and fluvial systems around Banda Aceh with the aim of reconstructing the interaction of geohazards and the city’s coastal settlements for the past millennium.

“Isaac Kerlow completed Ichiro and the Wave, a documentary film presenting a unique and inspirational experience by Ichiro, a man who survived the tsunami on a boat.”

After the 2004 tsunami, vast resources flooded into Aceh to make sure such destruction would never happen again. Embodied in the ‘build back better’ mantra, the reconstruction promised massive improvements in safety and living conditions of those residing in tsunami-affected areas. But was Aceh ‘built back better’? In his Aftermath of Aid project, Patrick Daly and his team spent a decade in the field gathering data on Aceh’s reconstruction projects and whether those projects reduced risk. Daly spent the past year analysing the data and has already began presenting his preliminary findings.

Official poster for the Ichiro and the Wave documentary short.

Tsunami preparedness is another method that may help reduce risk in coastal communities like Aceh. Storytelling is a powerful way to impart these lessons. Isaac Kerlow completed Ichiro and the Wave, a documentary film presenting a unique and inspirational experience by Ichiro, a man who survived the tsunami on a boat. The Art+Media group also released Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish editions of Earth Girl 2: Preparing for the Tsunami, an interactive game about making strategic decisions to increase the survival rate in coastal communities during earthquakes and tsunamis.

Sumatra is far from the only region in Asia at risk from natural disasters. Our scientists are working in several countries across Asia on multiple projects, from researching tectonics in Nepal and searching for an impact crater in Laos to studying volcanoes in the Philippines and demystifying climate history in Vietnam.

Climate

Nathalie Goodkin

  • Records of Indonesian Throughflow, Regional Neotectonics, Holocene Paleoenvironments and Sea Level from the Southern Outflow of the Makassar Strait
  • Spatial and Temporal Variations in Stable Isotopic Compositions of Precipitation in Southeast Asia
  • The Oceanographic Perspective: Reconstructing seasonal climate variations in the Indo-Pacific using coral geochemical records

Tieh Yong Koh

  • Monsoon Dynamics, Predictability and Tropical Paleoclimate

Mikinori Kuwata

  • Atmospheric Organic Aerosol in the Changing Environment of Southeast Asia

Xianfeng Wang

  • Coral-Based Climate Variability in the Northeastern Bay of Bengal during the Little Ice Age
  • Elevation, Facies and Timing of Coral terraces in Sumba Island: A Revisit
  • Tracking hydro-climate variation in the tropical Indo-Pacific with highly resolved cave records
  • Mercury Isotopes for Source Apportionment Study of Atmospheric Particle Bound Mercury in an Urban Setting

Tectonics

Judith Hubbard

  • Assessing seismic hazards in Southeast Asia by characterizing the geometries and slip histories of active faults

Kerry Sieh

  • Earthquake Geology in Myanmar
  • Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Myanmar: Initiative of the Southeast Asia Earthquake Model
  • Search for the Impact Crater of the Australasian Tektites
  • Seismic Behaviour of Sinistral Strike-Slip Faults of the Shan Plateau

Adam Switzer

  • Tales of Typhoons Past; Reconstructing the Impacts of the Tacloban (1897) and Tonkin Typhoons
  • Holocene Sea-Level History on the Sunda Shelf from Coral Microatolls
  • A Preliminary Investigation of Holocene Neotectonics of Northwest Luzon, Philippines based on Uplifted Coral Terraces and Dunes
  • The Geomicrobiology of the Sedimentary Deposits of Coastal Overwash Events
  • Experimental Determination of Trace Metal Partitioning in Ostracod Calcite: Calibration Tools for Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction
  • Was the Ratu Kidul Myth of Southern Java Inspired by a Devastating Tsunami?
  • EOS Participation in “Hazards, Tipping Points, Adaptation and Collapse in the Indo-Pacific World” A Project Integrating History and Science
  • Developing a Robust Seamless Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) Framework for EOS Using a Pilot Study in the South China Sea
  • Sea-Level from Living and Fossil Corals in Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Records of Early Holocene Post-Glacial Sea Level Rise from the Singapore Kallang Basin: Stepped or Continuous?

Paul Tapponnier

  • Discrete Element Modelling of Fault Nucleation and Propagation in Collision Zones
  • Searching for the Trace of Great Medieval Earthquakes in Central Nepal
  • The Bengal-Assam Syntaxis: Geometry and Kinematics of Active Faulting
  • Earthquake Ruptures in China: Testing Earthquake Recurrence Models

Volcano

Caroline Bouvet

  • Petrophysical and Textural Analysis Lab

Fidel Costa

  • Pattern Recognition of Crystal Zoning as a means to Quantify Volcanic Processes
  • Reconstructing the Plumbing Systems and Dynamics of Magmatic Processes Below Active Volcanoes
  • WOVOdat
  • Causes, Processes, and Forecasts of Eruptions of Open Vent Volcanoes in Southeast Asia

Benoit Taisne

  • Dynamics of Dyke Propagation
  • MUON Tomography at Mayon Volcano, Philippines: Toward a Better Understanding of Open-Vent Systems
  • Laboratory Volcanoes: Mayon, Gede, and Salak

Technical Office

Paramesh Banerjee

  • Earth Observation System for Tectonic and Volcano Studies

Hazards and Society

Benjamin Detenber

  • Understanding Climate Change and its Impacts: The Influence of Knowledge, Trust, Values, and Social Norms

Art+Media

Isaac Kerlow

  • Knowledge Capsules
  • Merapi Interactive
  • Perpetual Motion
  • The EOS Art Projects
  • Earth Girl Climate
  • Web GeoTouch
Daly, P. (2016).  Cycles of destruction and reconstruction: responding to disasters in the Asia-Pacific region. (Daly, P., & Feener RM., Ed.).Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region. 1-56.
Daly, P., & Feener RM. (2016).  Post-disaster reconstruction in Asia: New actors and approaches. (Daly, P., & Feener RM., Ed.).Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region. 393-405.
Delias, D., & Daly P. (2016).  The challenges of disaster risk reduction in rapidly expanding urban environments: Baguio City, Philippines since the 1990 Luzon Earthquake. (Daly, P., & Feener RM., Ed.).Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region. 57-80.

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Outreach

Connecting with communities across the globe.

This past year, the Community Engagement Office was kept busy with outreach events, hosting visitors on-site, and expanding relationships with both the scientific and non-scientific communities through various media. The ultimate goal of the Office is to further the Observatory’s mission of creating safer and more sustainable societies in Southeast Asia and beyond. Under the direction of Sabrina Smith, the Community Engagement Office expanded its communication and outreach efforts to connect and engage with a broader audience across the globe.

“...the Community Engagement Office expanded its communication and outreach efforts to connect and engage with a broader audience across the globe.”

Two main highlights were the outreach events organised in support of the Mentawai Gap—Tsunami Earthquake Risk Assessment (MEGA-TERA) expedition. In collaboration with the Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris, the Indonesian Institute of Science, and the Schmidt Ocean Institute, the Office held a media conference and a VIP reception onboard the research vessel Falkor at the Singapore Cruise Centre. The Observatory also partnered with the Science Centre Singapore to host panel discussions between the MEGA-TERA scientific team and secondary school students.

On-site visits were also a large part of our activities. The Community Engagement Office supported EOS in hosting visits from researchers, government agencies, and corporate leaders from around the world, including the Lee Kuan Yew Distinguished Visitor Alain Fuchs, the Acting Minister for Higher Education Mr. Ong Ye Kung, participants from the Global Young Scientist Summit 2016, as well as curriculum officers from the Ministry of Education to learn more about our research. The Office also put together the Earthquake hazards workshop in cooperation with the Asian School of the Environment and the Sloan Foundation, which was held on-site.

The Frontiers in Earthquake Hazards workshop was one of the largest workshops of its kind held onsite.

As part of documentary photographer Joanne Petrina’s work, she joined scientists on field trips, creating a visual archive of their research and stories told by the locals. These photographs highlight the reason why scientific research at the Observatory is important to these at-risk communities. In collaboration with Stephen Lansing, a professor at the Asian School of the Environment, Petrina’s photo narrative of water temples that supply water to paddy fields in Bali, Indonesia, captures the unique response of the Balinese to the challenges of supporting a dense population on a rugged volcanic island in a monsoonal area.

The Applied Projects Group connects geoscience researchers with policy experts to address pressing geohazards issues in Southeast Asia. Led by Andreas Schaffer, the group works closely with EOS scientists, leading academics, and geo-risk experts to assess and mitigate risks surrounding climate change, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes.

“...the group works closely with EOS scientists, leading academics, and geo-risk experts to assess and mitigate risks surrounding climate change, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes.”

2015 was an eventful year for the Applied Projects Group. They successfully secured two externally funded grants to conduct valuable studies in both Singapore and Thailand. Using data to assess earthquake hazard in Singapore, the first project is funded by the Building and Construction Authority of Singapore. The second project aims to enhance disaster and climate resilience in Asia’s tourism hot spots. Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the project began in Phuket and is looking at opportunities to enhance resilience.

The Applied Projects Group has also been appointed to support the implementation of the ASEAN India Project on Enhancing Local Level Climate Change Adaptation in Southeast Asia. Additionally, the group has been selected to contribute towards the earthquake hazards component of a World Bank funded project in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand.

The Technical Office manages all field instrumentation networks developed by the Earth Observatory of Singapore. Currently active permanent instrumentation networks include GPS, broadband seismic, infrasound, gas monitoring system and other geophysical installations. These networks are spread across seven countries throughout Asia. Under the direction of Paramesh Banerjee, the Technical Office coordinates with foreign government agencies, working closely with and training locals.

The Technical Office staff and Nepalese partners helping to install a ground GPS control station so that they can carry out airborne LiDAR surveys.

After the magnitude-7.8 Nepal earthquake occurred in April 2015, the team installed six new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations in the area. They also completed an Airborne LiDAR survey in Nepal covering an area of more than 1,000 square kilometres to produce high resolution Digital Terrain Model to identify and study active faults. More Airborne LiDAR surveys will be carried out in Nepal and Myanmar in the coming year.

The team also focused their efforts in Myanmar, completing an additional terrestrial LiDAR survey to offer further and deeper insights into the country’s complex geology. They completed the set-up of a 30-station broadband seismic network, which produces important data regarding tectonic activity in the region. Moreover, this network will be integrated with international efforts to build a robust scientific infrastructure in Myanmar.

“Overseeing and expanding the Observatory’s vast network of almost 100 permanent GPS instruments, more than 50 seismic and other geophysical stations across Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Philippines will continue to be a key focus for the Technical Office throughout 2016 and beyond.”

To support research into volcanic hazards in Indonesia and Philippines, the Technical Office installed five infrasound stations in Singapore and continued seismic and telemetry installations at both Gede-Salak and Mayon, EOS’ volcano laboratories. Overseeing and expanding the Observatory’s vast network of almost 100 permanent GPS instruments, more than 50 seismic and other geophysical stations across Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Philippines will continue to be a key focus for the Technical Office throughout 2016 and beyond.

Education

Training future leaders to face Asia’s biggest environmental challenges.

Asian School of the Environment

The Asian School of the Environment (ASE) is an interdisciplinary school in the Nanyang Technological University College of Science that trains future leaders to face Asia’s biggest environmental challenges.

The School offers a rigorous PhD programme in Earth Sciences, with more than 20 postgraduate students to date. These students have a wide range of research opportunities, including designing wave gliders for recording seafloor movement, reconstructing historical typhoons or modelling complex faults. They work closely with internationally renowned researchers from the Earth Observatory of Singapore, with many co-authoring scientific papers. ASE postgraduate students are building a strong base for the next wave of geoscience researchers in Southeast Asia.

“Having a lesson at one of the craters of Mt Batur is really memorable, cool and enriching. Nothing beats field "classrooms", with really good professors who have a good sense of humour.”
–ASE student

Undergraduate education at ASE facilitates unique, hands-on education. The 2015 cohort of undergraduates went out on their first overseas field experience in Bali for two weeks. They completed three modules: Rice Ecology, Volcanology and Coastal Ecology. Students identified rocks, mapped an entire rice paddy, measured water flux, and snorkelled to study sea organisms. Through these experiments, the undergraduates learned practical skills and experienced what it was like to work in the field.


The field trips organised by the Asian School of the Environment are geared towards hands-on learning, collaboration, and equipping students with life skills.

Outside of curriculum time, the ASE Club threw parties, organised terrarium-building workshops, handed out exam welfare packs, and planned a chalet. Coffee and tea breaks were held several times throughout the academic year to encourage interaction between faculty, undergraduates, researchers and PhD students. Twenty-five students received scuba diving certification and travelled to Rawa Island in Malaysia for their open water dive.

“ASE is the only school in Singapore which offers an undergraduate course in geology/ geosciences and it also offers an interesting curriculum.”
–ASE student

To attract new students, the Asian School of the Environment held a number of outreach events, including a high tea with NTU president Bertil Andersson for students in the top ten per cent of the cohort, and a programme called Let’s Talk NTU 2016 for all Singapore Polytechnic graduates. They also participated in the NTU Open House held in March, where faculty, staff, and students provided tours, shared insights about the programme, and distributed goodie bags.

ASE students after their open water dive course in Rawa Island, Malaysia.

Impact

Expanding our reach and growing our global network.

Honours include:

Best Student Poster at the 12th Asia Oceana Geosciences Society Meeting

Yudha Djamil

Best Animation: Williamsburg International Film Festival 2015

SHADOWS

Silver Winner: Serious Play Conference

Earth Girl 2

FaceBook likes jumped 5X from 478 in April 2015 to 2,549 in March.

539,000 visitors to earthobservatory.sg

72 seminars and workshops held on-site.

Supporters

Thanks to our generous supporters who believe in building safer and more sustainable societies.

Nanyang Technical UniversityMinistry of Education, SingaporeAXA Research FundNational Research FoundationAutodesk FoundationStephen Riady FoundationThe Asia Foundation

Individuals:

  • Chiang Hong Wei
  • Descatoire Yves Rene
  • Maybel D’Silva
  • Loh Li Kiang
  • Oh Hwee Hong
  • Ting Aik Leong Alistair

Kerry Sieh

Director

Paramesh Banerjee

Technical Director

Amir Reza Emami

Development Director

Charles Rubin

Head, Asian School of the Environment

Andreas Schaffer

Sustainability Director

Sabrina Smith

Community Engagement Director

Paul Tapponnier

Tectonics Group Leader

Kien Young Woo

Corporate Services Director

Group Representatives

Fidel Costa

Volcano Group

Xianfeng Wang

Climate Group

Teo Ming Kian

EOS Governing Board Chairman, Chairman, MediaCorp Pte Ltd

Barry Desker

Distinguished Fellow, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University

Freddy Boey

Provost, Nanyang Technological University

George Loh

Director, Programmes, National Research Foundation

Jean-Lou Chameau

President, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education’s Academic Research Council member

John Lim

Divisional Director, Higher Education Policy and Higher Education Operations, Ministry of Education

Wong Chin Ling

Director-General, Meteorological Services Singapore, National Environment Agency

Kerry Sieh

Director, Earth Observatory of Singapore

Douglas West Burbank

Professor of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara

Michael Kevin Gagan

Senior Fellow, Earth Environment, Research School of Earth Sciences, College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, The Australian National University

Kenji Satake

Professor, Head of Earthquake and Volcano Information Center, Head of International Office, Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo

Andrew C. Revkin

Senior Fellow for Environmental Understanding, Pace Academy for Applied Environmental Studies, Pace University; Dot Earth blogger, The New York Times

Katherine Venable Cashman

AXA Endowed Chair of Volcanology, University of Bristol
  • Aceh Heritage Community Foundation
  • Aquatic Sciences Department, University Malaysia Sarawak
  • Asia Research Institute
  • Ateneo De Manila University, Philippines
  • Australian National University
  • AXA Research Fund
  • Bengkulu University
  • Birkbeck, University of London
  • Building and Construction Authority of Singapore
  • California Institute of Technology
  • CEA/DASE
  • Center for Environmental Sensing and Modelling, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology
  • Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
  • Coastal and Ocean Engineering Program, Oregon State University
  • College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University
  • Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington
  • Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine
  • Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Tufts University
  • Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon
  • Department of Geology/Geography, Eastern Illinois University
  • Department of Geoscience, Virginia Tech
  • Department of Geosciences, University of Massachussets—Amherst
  • Department of History, Islamic State University
  • Department of Marine and Coastal Science, Rutgers University
  • Department of Mines and Geology, Nepal
  • Department of Physics, University of Toronto
  • Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan
  • École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, Paris Tech
  • ETH Zurich
  • Geological Survey of Bangladesh
  • Global Earthquake Model Foundation
  • Global Volcano Model Network
  • Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
  • Hasanuddin University
  • Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
  • Indonesian Institute of Sciences
  • Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
  • Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg
  • Institut Physique Nucleaire de Lyon
  • Institute for Southeast Asian Studies
  • Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica
  • Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration
  • Institute of History, Leiden University
  • Institute of Marine Environment and Resources, Vietnam
  • Institute of Oceanography and the Environment, University Malaysia Terengganu
  • Institute of Space Sciences and Marine Technology, Spain
  • Institute of Technology, Bandung
  • International Center for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies
  • Islamic State University Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh
  • Kogami
  • Kyoto University
  • Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Clermont-Ferrand
  • Laboratorie de Géographie Physique, University of Paris
  • Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University
  • Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines
  • Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia
  • Monash University
  • Murdoch University
  • Myanmar Engineering Society
  • Nanyang Polytechnic
  • Nanyang Technological University
  • National Central University, Taiwan
  • National Earthquake Data Center
  • National Family Planning Department, Indonesia
  • National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan
  • National Taiwan University
  • National University of Singapore
  • Northeast Institute of Science, Jorhat, India
  • Northwestern University
  • Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
  • R3ADY Asia Pacific
  • Rockefeller Foundation
  • Royal Conservatory of Music, Spain
  • Schlumberger Norge, Stavenger
  • Schmidt Ocean Institute
  • School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University
  • Sciences et Technologies, Blaise Pascal University
  • Singapore Art Museum
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Swinburne University of Technology
  • Syiah Kuala University
  • The Tisch School of the Arts
  • Universitas Gadjha Mada
  • Université de Lorraine
  • Université Joseph Fourier
  • University of Barcelona
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • University of Hawai’i at Manoa
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Hull
  • University of Sydney
  • University of Technology
  • University of the Philippines, Diliman
  • University of Wisconsin—Eau Clair
  • Volcano Investigation and Technology Development Institution
  • Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center
  • Wadia Institute
  • World Organization of Volcano Observatories
  • Yale University

Financials and Staffing

1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016


Acknowledgments

Project Director: Sabrina Smith
Project Manager/Editor: Cheryl Han
Production: Yvonne Soon
Writer: Katie Free
Web Design & Development: Maya Butterfield, Coconut Moon
Design Director: Amy Ray
Image Credits: Photographs by Joanne Petrina and Caroline Bouvet. Additional images by Emma Hill, Caroline Bouvet, Benoit Taisne, Paul Morgan, Sharadha Sathiakumar, Sylvain Barbot, Descatoire Yves Rene, Shengji Wei, Isaac Kerlow, Yap Li Yu, Juniator Tulius, Lim Tian Ning, Yvonne Soon, Clair Elaine Jerusha Devan.