Volcanic eruptions are sometimes accompanied by clouds of ash and hot gases that travel down the slopes of volcanoes at tens of kilometres per hour. These clouds, called pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), are some of the deadliest volcanic hazards. And as we cannot easily study them in real-time, we took another approach to quantify some of the features that make them so dangerous: their speed, temperature, height, and how far they travelled.
The eruption from the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano on 15 January 2022 sent a shock wave recorded all around the world, a large volcanic plume more than 20 kilometres (km) in the atmosphere, and a tsunami that affected many communities in Tonga and all around the world. There was also strong ashfall locally and reports of damage to infrastructure such as undersea cables vital to communications.
A major earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia in the Flores Sea on 14 December 2021 at approximately 11:20am (Singapore time). According to the United States Geological Survey, the magnitude-7.3 earthquake occurred off the north coast of Flores, about 110 kilometres (km) from Maumere, at a depth of 16 km. The Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG), the Indonesian meteorology, climatology, and geophysical agency, issued tsunami warnings for the region but no significant tsunami was detected.
Dear EOS Community,
Looking back on 2021 as Director of the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS), I am proud of EOS’ achievements as we adapted to numerous challenges associated with COVID-19, while focusing on critical research and producing impactful studies on geohazards and climate change.
In this interview series, we learn about the perspectives of the PhD students whose wide-ranging work contribute to the SEA2 Program and share what drives them in their research.
On 4th December 2021 at around 2pm local time, Semeru volcano, located in Eastern Java, Indonesia, generated lahars and large flows of volcanic rocks and ash. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), the Indonesia national disaster management authority, reported that the volcanic activity has killed more than ten people and injured dozens.
A lot is at stake this year regarding what the climate holds for us in the future. The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties, more widely known as COP26, gathered world leaders to decide on climate actions that will shape our climate and its impacts on our societies. While scientists from the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) could not join the physical event happening in Glasgow from 31 October to 12 November 2021, they have contributed in many other ways. Let’s find out how.
On 25 October 2010 at 9:42 PM local time, the people living on the southern Mentawai islands, a chain of islands located off Sumatra, Indonesia, felt a slow, gentle rocking of the rocks below their feet. Initial reports of the earthquake indicated that a magnitude-7 to -7.2 earthquake had occurred seaward of the islands.
Lying at the junction of several tectonic plates, Myanmar is exposed to geohazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. To help prepare for these hazards, scientists produce hazard assessments using their understanding of the region’s geology and tectonic activity. They seek to answer questions such as: how do the tectonic plates interact with each other, how deep the magma is, where the faults are, and what kinds of earthquakes can we expect?
In this interview series, we learn about the perspectives of the PhD students whose wide-ranging work contributes to the SEA2 Program and share what drives them in their research.
What comes to mind when you think of climate change and sea-level rise?