Earth Observatory Blog

Submitted on 27 Dec 2018 by:

At approximately 9:30pm local time (2:30pm GMT) on the 22nd December 2018, a tsunami struck Indonesia’s Sunda Strait, which lies between the islands of Java and Sumatra, claiming over 430 lives. According to Indonesia’s disaster agency there are at least 1,500 injured, over 120 people still missing, and around 12,000 people have been displaced.

The tsunami occurred during a local holiday for the December solstice, striking a number of popular tourist destinations, including the Tanjung Lesung beach resort in the west of Java. Eyewitness reports indicate there were two separate waves, with the second, larger wave causing the most damage. 

The tsunami was caused by a violent eruption of Anak Krakatau (Fig. 1), the "child" of Krakatoa, in the Sunda Strait....

Submitted on 13 Jun 2016 by:

Sinabung volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia, has been almost continuously erupting in the last three years. It has been on the highest alert level since 2013. 

Most of the eruptions on Mount Sinabung have been small. These eruptions vary between lava flows and dome extrusions that accumulate on the volcanic crater, and include explosions with ash plumes that are lower than 3 kilometres (km) in height.

The most common activity on the volcano are the pyroclastic flows that are generated by the gravitational collapse of the dome rocks that have gathered on the summit. The travel distance of these pyroclastic flows range from 2 km to 5 km. As such, since 2014, the exclusion zones were appropriately implemented up to 7 km of the south (S) sector and 6 km southeast-east (SE-E) of...