Why do P-waves travel faster than S-waves?
P-waves and S-waves are body waves that propagate through the planet. P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them.
P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. As the interior of the Earth is almost incompressible, P-waves transmit their energy quite easily through the medium and thus travel quickly.
On the other hand, S-waves are shear waves, which means that the motion of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. The energy is thus less easily transmitted through the medium, and S-waves are slower.