The Orange Tuff: a Late Pleistocene tephra-fall deposit emplaced by a VEI 5 silicic Plinian eruption in West Java, Indonesia

TitleThe Orange Tuff: a Late Pleistocene tephra-fall deposit emplaced by a VEI 5 silicic Plinian eruption in West Java, Indonesia
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsHarpel C, Kushendratno, Stimac J, de Harpel C, Primulyana S
JournalBulletin of Volcanology
Volume81
Issue3
Date Published05/2019
Abstract

A VEI 5 dacite eruption emplaced the Orange Tuff about between 34.3 cal kBP and 17.2 cal kBP. Gunung Salak is the unit’s source and the Orange Tuff represents the most recent such eruption from any of the volcanoes southwest of Bogor, Indonesia. The Orange Tuff is the region’s first such documented tephra-fall deposit whose characteristics and phenocryst geochemistry make it readily identifiable over at least 1250 km2. Magnetite compositions and temperature and fO2 estimates inferred from Fe-Ti oxide compositions are particularly useful for identifying the unit. Deposit characteristics suggest that the eruption lasted 1–11 h with mass eruption rates of 1.0–8.3 × 108 kg/s and a column height of 31–40 km. The eruption’s column height and the deposit’s 2.5–11 km3 volume suggest that the unit was dispersed over a much wider area than mapped. The unit is a marker bed throughout its mapped distribution and has potential to be applied over a much broader area as a regional marker bed. The large population and infrastructure proximal to Salak suggest that the unit should be considered in hazards assessments despite its age and the lack of subsequent similar eruptions.

DOI10.1007/s00445-019-1292-y