Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Contributions to Minarology and Petrology, Volume 172, Issue 5 (2017)
To understand the generation and evolution of mafic magmas from Klyuchevskoy volcano in the Kamchatka arc, which is one of the most active arc volcanoes on Earth, a petrological and geochemical study was carried out on time-series samples from the volcano. The eruptive products show significant variations in their whole-rock compositions (52.0-55.5 wt.% SiO2), and they have been divided into high-Mg basalts and high-Al andesites. In the high-Mg basalts, lower-K and higher-K primitive samples (>9 wt.% MgO) are present, and their petrological features indicate that they may represent primary or near-primary magmas. Slab-derived fluids that induced generation of the lower-K basaltic magmas were less enriched in melt component than those associated with the higher-K basaltic magmas, and the fluids are likely to have been released from the subducting slab at shallower levels for the lower-K basaltic magmas than for higher-K basaltic magmas. Analyses using multicomponent thermodynamics indicates that the lower-K primary magma was generated by similar to 13% melting of a source mantle with similar to 0.7 wt.% H2O at 1245-1260 degrees C and similar to 1.9 GPa. During most of the evolution of the volcano, the lower-K basaltic magmas were dominant; the higher-K primitive magma first appeared in AD 1932. In AD 1937-1938, both the lower-K and higher-K primitive magmas erupted, which implies that the two types of primary magmas were present simultaneously and independently beneath the volcano. The higher-K basaltic magmas evolved progressively into high-Al andesite magmas in a magma chamber in the middle crust from AD 1932 to similar to AD 1960. Since then, relatively primitive magma has been injected continuously into the magma chamber, which has resulted in the systematic increase of the MgO contents of erupted materials with ages from similar to AD 1960 to present.